Electric cars have fairly lower repair and maintenance costs because they have fewer moving parts, no internal combustion engine, no fuel, less brake wear, and components that require little to no regular maintenance. They are also extremely beneficial to the environment because they reduce air pollution levels. Their batteries are composed of numerous cell modules connected in series and parallel and generate hundreds of volts of power.
Electric vehicle batteries are responsible for a variety of functions within the vehicle. As a result, it becomes a key component of EV usage that must be constantly monitored and controlled. This necessitates the use of an EV Battery Management System (BMS).
Why are Electric Vehicles Gaining Importance in the Modern Era?
Electric vehicles are rapidly gaining popularity in the modern era due to the following reasons:
- Electric vehicles do not consume fuel in the same way that conventional vehicles do because they use electric-drive technologies to improve vehicle eﬃciency through regenerative braking, which captures energy that would otherwise be lost during braking.
- Because of the high efficacy of electric-drive components, electric vehicles can significantly reduce fuel costs.
- Electric and hybrid vehicles have the potential to reduce emissions significantly more than conventional vehicles. When operating in all-electric mode, all-electric vehicles emit no tailpipe emissions, and hybrid vehicles emit no tailpipe emissions.
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What are the Key Functions of a Battery Management System?
The EV Battery Management System must communicate with numerous onboard systems, work in real-time in rapidly changing charge/discharge conditions as the vehicle accelerates and brakes, and continues to function in harsh and uncontrolled environments. The primary functions of the Battery Management System are as follows:
- Battery Safety
High-voltage battery packs to power electric vehicles. As a result, we must ensure that these batteries operate safely. To ensure the battery’s safe operation, the EV Battery Management System displays parameters such as temperature, input and output current, and the voltage across the battery packs. To avoid overcharging, the current that flows towards the battery is monitored. BMS ensures that the vehicle frame is totally isolated from the high voltage to prevent the user from receiving an electric shock.
- Energy Recovery
Another function of the BMS is to recharge the battery using the energy generated by regenerative braking. When surplus kinetic energy is transformed back into chemical energy or another form, this energy is obtained. This energy is also used to recharge the battery. The BMS transfers the energy to the battery pack.
- Battery Balancing
The EV Battery Management System quantifies the State of Charge (SOC), which is used to indicate the battery’s charge level. BMS aids in the optimization of battery performance. The BMS conveys with the motor controller to prevent cell voltages from falling too low while discharging.
- Thermal Management
The BMS constantly monitors the temperature and performs thermal management. It measures parameters such as average temperature, coolant consumption temperature, coolant output temperature, and individual cell temperatures. This is done to prevent the battery from overheating. When the battery overheats, the BMS activates several cooling mechanisms.
The BMS can communicate with the vehicle’s Electronic Control Units (ECUs). The BMS central controller communicates with internal hardware at the cell well or with other external devices.
It sends information about the battery specifications to the motor controller to ensure that the vehicle runs smoothly. The EV Battery Management System is in charge of interacting with the onboard charger. It oversees and regulates the charging of the battery in this manner.
How Does an Electric Vehicle Battery Management System Contribute to Performance?
The EV Battery Management System is mainly in charge of monitoring the parameters of the battery. The analogue front end gathers data to determine battery health. This improves an electric vehicle’s performance.
The cell balancing circuit in the BMS ensures that each cell has the same level of discharge and charge so that some cells are not swamped and destroyed. Balancing the charging and discharging of individual cells improves the electric vehicle’s overall performance, operation, and safety.
The BMS also makes it easier to communicate data to the driver. The EV Battery Management System can also be used to monitor the diagnostics and performance of the electric vehicle, as well as to set system parameters.
What Lies Ahead For The Market For Battery Management Systems?
In response to consumer and societal demands for improved performance, new EV battery management systems are being developed. The advancement of wireless BMS is one domain that offers significant cost and performance improvements for EVs.
Fast charging is a new and urgently needed advancement for electric vehicles, especially buses and vehicles that must run continuously. To avoid overcharging and overheating, fast-charging EV batteries require more sophisticated battery management and precise evaluations of conditions inside battery cells.
Is It Necessary To Have A BMS In Electric Vehicles?
A Battery Management System (BMS), which controls the electricals of a battery pack, whether a cell or a battery pack, becomes an important factor in ensuring the safety of electric vehicles. It protects both the user and the battery by keeping the cell within its safe operational parameters.
What Are The Different Types Of Battery Management Systems?
The various types of EV Battery Management Systems are:
- Centralised EV BMS
- Decentralised EV BMS
How To Detect EV Battery Management System Failure?
- Examine whether the management system’s external power supply is normal and capable of reaching the typical working voltage required by the system.
- Check to see if the peripheral power supply has a low current setting, which would result in an inadequate power supply to the management system.
- Examine the management system’s wiring harness for any shorts or broken circuits.
- If the external power supply and wiring harness are fine, check to see if the system’s DCDC has voltage output and, if so, replace the bad DCDC module.
What Happens If BMS Malfunctions?
If the EV Battery Management System malfunction is not identified, an electric shock may occur. As a result, BMS systems have the most stringent monitoring sensor requirements. Avoiding monitoring system failure can significantly improve the safety of the power battery.